This different attitude is reduced, in turn, to three cardinal relations: 1 the relation of consciousness to the object as to truth, or to truth as mere object for example, sensual consciousness, natural religion, Ionic philosophy, Catholicism, the authoritarian state, etc.
In Hegel, too, the first relation is defined as God the Father, the second as Christ, the third as the Holy Spirit, etc. Stirner already used these transformations when speaking of child and youth, of ancient and modern, and he repeats them later in regard to Catholicism and Protestantism, the Negro and the Mongol, etc.
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Second set of instructions in spirit-seeing. How to transform the world into the spectre of truth, and oneself into something made holy or spectral.
A conversation between Saint Max and his servant Szeliga pp. What are your thoughts? I can admittedly he mistaken about the truth and fail to perceive it, but when I truly perceive, then the object of my perception is the truth. The truth I cannot abolish; in the truth I believe, and therefore I investigate into its nature; there is nothing higher than it, it is eternal.
The truth is sacred, eternal, it is the holy, the eternal. This is the first manufacture of spectres on a large scale. Then our saint begins a sermon:. Here we can only admire this dialectical method of appositions — later we shall have occasion to explore it and present it in all its classical beauty.
We have here two progressions which are equated to each other and can thus provide the opportunity for great variety of equations.
We shall deal with this later. Incidentally we need hardly mention that this entire dialogue with the sermon that follows is nothing but another repetition of the story of the youth already met with three or four times before. Spirit, the holy, the foreign are identical ideas, on which he declares war, in the same way almost word for word as he did at the very outset in regard to the youth and the man.
We have, therefore, still not advanced a step further than we had on page At any rate, he imagines so. Actually, however, he only substitutes a new name for his former conception of history according to which people were from the outset the representatives of general concepts. These general concepts appear here first of all in the Negroid form as objective spirits having for people the character of objects, and at this level are called spectres or — apparitions.
Thus, we see here the skies opening and the various kinds of spectres passing before us one after the other. Jacques le bonhomme forgets only that he has already caused ancient and modern times to parade before us like gigantic spectres, compared with which all the harmless fancies about God, etc. Spectre No. We need not waste any more words on this incredible belief. Something, indeed, could be said about this but is not said — and one passes at once to the next:.
To perceive and to recognise them, and them alone, is religion. Here there suddenly appears for no apparent reason. He feels highly uncomfortable. The split between phenomenon and essence gives him no peace. This leads him to. That is to say, he utters the opinion p.
Saint Max imagines, for example, that in antiquity, when each people was held together by material relations and interests, e.
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It is the same with religion, with the realm of essences, which he considers the unique realm, but concerning the essence of which he knows nothing, for otherwise he must have known that religion as such has neither essence, nor realm. In religion people make their empirical world into an entity that is only conceived, imagined, that confronts them as something foreign. Ordinary theology, however, has its ghosts in the sensuous imagination, speculative theology has them in non-sensuous abstraction.
And since Saint Max shares the belief of all critical speculative philosophers of modern times that thoughts, which have become independent, objectified thoughts — ghosts — have ruled the world and continue to rule it, and that all history up to now was the history of theology, nothing could be easier for him than to transform history into a history of ghosts. You have a fixed idea! The man of God is again in need of his faithful Szeliga in order to pass from the object to the subject, from the apparition to the whimsy.
We are still a long way from getting rid of the youth and the child. Hence a few examples of whimsy can suffice us here. Hence, according to Jacques le bonhomme, people engage in politics because our newspapers are full of them! If a church father were to glance at the stock exchange reports of our newspapers, he could not judge differently from Saint Max and would have to say: these newspapers are full of stock exchange reports because they are in the grip of the delusion that man was created in order to engage in financial speculation.
The child becomes the Negro, the youth — the Mongol. Consequently, Stirner clarifies the campaigns of Sesostris, etc. On the contrary, people are simply exceptionally busy crawling about on this static world, this substance, like parasitic animalcules on a body from whose juices they extract nourishment, but nevertheless do not devour the body.
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It is the bustling activity of noxious insects, the industriousness of Mongols. Among the Chinese indeed everything remains as of old, etc The substance, the object remains. All our industriousness is only the activity of ants and the jumping of fleas Hegel, Philosophie der Geschichte, pp. Thus we have still not advanced a step. In her miserliness his mother could not understand this act, so she stole the cloth and brought it back to her son.
The monk gave it to the Buddha again and again, and six more times the mother stole it back.
Beings are reborn in the hungry ghost realm because they have acted with extreme selfishness and greed, and refused to share their blessings with the less fortunate. This greed is feverish, angst-ridden and passionate, whereas the greed of the Beast Realm is more immediate, basic and instinctual. To become a hungry ghost a being had to be more conscious about their greed, often manipulating, scheming, lying and withholding in order to obtain or keep what they wanted.
Beings in the asura realm can see into heaven and are consumed with envy for what they do not have, even though on the Wheel of Life they are Asuras are not overwhelmed by the sense of pervasive poverty that torments hungry ghosts; asuras have a sense that there are many resources available and are obsessed with obtaining more of them than their neighbors have. Hungry ghosts are fixated on their own intense hunger and thirst and despair that it can ever be satisfied. Even when hungry ghosts receive some rare nourishment, their hunger and thirst simply increase a moment later.
The red buddha of this realm carries a container filled with celestial nourishment and teaches the virtue of generosity and sacrifice. Hungry ghosts can get free of this realm by turning toward these activities.
They may be inspired and encouraged by religious offerings dedicated especially to them, which is the only way they are able to take in any nourishment. In some Buddhist traditions there are annual ceremonies for feeding the hungry ghosts. When we are in the Hungry Ghost Realm, the world looks bleak and barren.
We try to grasp anything that might relieve our longing — wealth, opportunity, comfort, sex, adoration, respect, relationships, education, entertainment — but the thing which would surely satisfy us seems to shrink from our touch, leaving us alone and in extreme spiritual poverty. We may even try to acquire spirituality, or perform virtuous deeds with a deadly serious hope that doing so will make us happy or appreciated. Our intense, anguished need is like a bottomless pit. Any and all offerings simply fall into the pit and disappear from sight as if they had never been.
Everything seems tasteless and lacking. We may have things that other beings long for or are even willing to die for, but they count as nothing to us. Experiences and activities that would have made us happy in the past hardly cause a flicker of joy in us anymore. There seems to be no alternative to trying to recreate past enjoyable experiences, so we do so repeatedly — long after things have ceased being enjoyable or nourishing in any way. In desperation we turn back to the drug, the person, the experience that gave us that rush of satisfaction once upon a time.
As hungry ghosts we often plague others, pulling at their sleeves and begging for them to do something for us. We ask for their constant attention, or for an endless explanation of how we are, in actuality, OK. At this point it is like the ghosts who see food from afar: we catch a glimpse of something that might make us feel better, but it never does for long. Most people tire of us and begin to avoid us, which only makes us more desperate. We feel as justified in our efforts to satisfy our hunger as the asuras do in their efforts to satisfy their ambitions.
This can lead to self-absorption, greediness, stinginess, and even deceptiveness and stealing. It is not that we enjoy mischief for its own sake. It just seems to us that if we stop, we will be consumed by our own longing. We create our own Hungry Ghost Realm by adopting a worldview based on lack. When we have this view, we truly are living in a barren universe devoid of anything meaningful and nourishing. Our thoughts become our reality, and we can point to countless examples of lack all around us: see, people never really love me , or see, things never turn out for me.